Pschological Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms are the patient’s complaints. They are highly subjective and amenable to suggestion and to alterations in the patient’s mood and other mental processes.

The first encounter between psychiatrist or therapist and patient (or client) is multi-phased. The mental health practitioner notes the patient’s history and administers or prescribes a physical examination to rule out certain medical conditions. Armed with the results,Guest Posting the diagnostician now observes the patient carefully and compiles lists of signs and symptoms, grouped into syndromes.

Symptoms are the patient’s complaints. They are highly subjective and amenable to suggestion and to alterations in the patient’s mood and other mental processes. Symptoms are no more than mere indications. Signs, on the other hand, are objective and measurable. Signs are evidence of the existence, stage, and extent of a pathological state. Headache is a symptom – short-sightedness (which may well be the cause of the headache) is a sign.

Here is a partial list of the most important signs and symptoms in alphabetical order:


We all experience emotions, but each and every one of us expresses them differently. Affect is HOW we express our innermost feelings and how other people observe and interpret our expressions. Affect is characterized by the type of emotion involved (sadness, happiness, anger, etc.) and by the intensity of its expression. Some people have flat affect: they maintain “poker faces”, monotonous, immobile, apparently unmoved. This is typical of the Schizoid Personality Disorder Others have blunted, constricted, or broad (healthy) affect. Patients with the dramatic (Cluster B) personality disorders – especially the Histrionic and the Borderline – have exaggerate and labile (changeable) affect. They are “drama queens”.

In certain mental health disorders, the affect is inappropriate. For instance: such people laugh when they recount a sad or horrifying event or when they find themselves is morbid settings (e.g., in a funeral).

Also see: Mood.

Read about inappropriate affect in narcissists


We have all come across situations and dilemmas which evoked equipotent – but opposing and conflicting – emotions or ideas. Now, imagine someone with a permanent state of inner turmoil: her emotions come in mutually exclusive pairs, her thoughts and conclusions arrayed in contradictory dyads. The result is, of course, extreme indecision, to the point of utter paralysis and inaction. Sufferers of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders and the Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are highly ambivalent.


When we lose the urge to seek pleasure and to prefer it to nothingness or even pain, we become anhedonic. Depression inevitably involves anhedonia. the depressed are unable to conjure sufficient mental energy to get off the couch and do something because they find everything equally boring and unattractive.


Diminished appetite to the point of refraining from eating. Whether it is part of a depressive illness or a body dysmorphic disorder (erroneous perception of one’s body as too fat) is still debated. Anorexia is one of a family of eating disorders which also includes bulimia (compulsive gorging on food and then its forced purging, usually by vomiting).

Learn more about comorbidity of eating disorders and personality disorders


A kind of unpleasant (dysphoric), mild fear, with no apparent external reason. Anxiety is akin to dread, or apprehension, or fearful anticipation of some imminent but diffuse and unspecified danger. The mental state of anxiety (and the concomitant hypervigilance) has physiological complements: tensed muscle tone, elevated blood pressure, tachycardia, and sweating (arousal). Generalized Anxiety Disorder is sometimes misdiagnosed as a personality disorder


More precisely: autistic thinking and inter-relating (relating to other people). Fantasy-infused thoughts. The patient’s cognitions derive from an overarching and all-pervasive fantasy life. Moreover, the patient infuses people and events around him or her with fantastic and completely subjective meanings. The patient regards the external world as an extension or projection of the internal one. He, thus, often withdraws completely and retreats into his inner, private realm, unavailable to communicate and interact with others.

Asperger’s Disorder, one of the spectrum of autistic disorders, is sometimes misdiagnosed as Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)

Automatic obeisance or obedience

Automatic, unquestioning, and immediate obeisance of all commands, even the most manifestly absurd and dangerous ones. This suspension of critical judgment is sometimes an indication of incipient catatonia.

BlockingHalted, frequently interrupted speech to the point of incoherence indicates a parallel disruption of thought processes. The patient appears to try hard to remember what it was that he or she were saying or thinking (as if they “lost the thread” of conversation).


“Human sculptures” are patients who freeze in any posture and position that they are placed, no matter how painful and unusual. Typical of catatonics.


A syndrome comprised of various signs, amongst which are: catalepsy, mutism, stereotypy, negativism, stupor, automatic obedience, echolalia, and echopraxia. Until recently it was thought to be related to schizophrenia, but this view has been discredited when the biochemical basis for schizophrenia had been discovered. The current thinking is that catatonia is an exaggerated form of mania (in other words: an affective disorder). It is a feature of catatonic schizophrenia, though, and also appears in certain psychotic states and mental disorders that have organic (medical) roots.

Cerea Flexibilitas

Literally: wax-like flexibility. In the common form of catalepsy, the patient offers n

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Do You Know Spirit Airlines Cancellation Policy?

Spirit Airlines is the major ultra-low-cost airline company in the US. You should know about Spirit Airlines flight changes procedure before flying.

What you should know about Spirit Airline’s flight changes procedure before flying?

Spirit Airlines is the major ultra-low-cost airline company in the US.

Currently,Guest Posting Spirit Airlines flies to many destinations across the globe ensuring a safer and great travel experience.

The reservations of air tickets at Spirit Airlines are with great discounts and at a very low cost.

If you want to book your flight tickets then you can do it online or at the ticket counter or over the phone.

But, sometimes you may have to make Spirit Airline flight changes or cancel for any reason.

In such a situation, you can call the customer care number to avoid paying any change fee.

Now the question is, how can one change the flight with Spirit Airlines without paying any fee?

Passengers are advised to read and understand the updated Spirit Airlines flight change policy to avoid any confusion in the future.

This will help them to be ready in advance and give them clarity regarding all the terms and conditions of flight change.

However, there are some ways in which one can change the flight without paying an extra fee:

Passengers should change their flight reservation within 24-hours of the original booking.
Passengers are allowed to make Spirit Airlines flight changes if they encounter any unforeseen circumstances like a death in the family. They are just required to present the supporting documents for such situations. And, Spirit Airlines will not charge any extra fees.
The passengers should book their tickets via credit card as it will allow them to trip change coverage.
Passengers will not have to pay any extra charge if they are changing their tickets with another Spirit Airlines flight.
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Changing flights with Spirit Airline
When you think of making changes with Spirit Airlines, the very first question which will strike in your mind is “How to change the flight”.

Let me discuss every single detail to get the answer to this question.

Spirit Airlines provides you with two options to change their flights i.e. online and offline mode.

You can choose any of these options at your convenience.

Many passengers don’t have an idea about flight changing procedures and Spirit Airlines flight change policy.

It is always important to understand the policies before making changes or cancellations to avoid any extra charges or fees.

Here are the procedures for both online and offline methods of flight change:

Spirit flight Change Online
Changing flights with Spirit Airlines can be done easily via online mode without any change fee penalty when it is done 24 hours prior to the originally scheduled departure.

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